Researchers at TSRC and the University of California (UC), Irvine completed an ambitious multi-year (2007-2010) project to study user response and energy impacts of Toyota’s prototype plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHVs) and fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHVs). The California Clean Mobility Partnership (CCMP) is a partnership among UC Berkeley, UC Irvine, Toyota, and the Bay Area and South Coast Air Quality Management Districts, in conjunction with the California Air Resources Board and the California Energy Commission. During Phase I of the CCMP, researchers studied the behavioral responses to PHVs and the option to plug the vehicles into the utility grid to recharge batteries, technical energy use, environmental and economic assessments, air quality modeling and testing and certification. The project, with support from Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc. and Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A. also evaluated driver perceptions of the relative strengths and weaknesses of PHVs and FCHVs as well as conventional Prius hybrid vehicles.
Williams, et al. 2011 RF1 report on the real-world use and energy and GHG emissions implications of the PHV placed in Northern California. For example, based on daily driving distances, 20 miles of charge-depleting range would have been fully utilized on 81% of days driven, whereas 40 miles would not have been fully utilized on over half of travel days. Additionally, the greenhouse gas emissions from driving and charging were estimated to be 2.6 metric tons, about half of the emissions expected from a 22.4-mpg vehicle (the MY2009 fleet-wide real-world average).