The automobile is the dominant travel mode throughout the U.S., while transit accounts for less than four percent of market share. Between these principal modes, niche markets exist for other transportation services, such as transit feeder shuttles and carsharing. Carsharing, in which individuals share a fleet of vehicles distributed at neighborhoods, employment sites, and/or transit stations, could potentially fill and expand one such niche; complement existing services; and develop into an economically viable transportation alternative.
The automobile accounts for more than 95 percent of all person miles traveled in the United States, whereas transit accounts for less than three percent of all trips. Between the private automobile and traditional transit, niche markets exist for other transportation services, such as airport and transit feeder shuttles and carsharing.
In this report, the authors describe the key differences between the CarLink I and CarLink II models; describe in detail how feedback from focus groups guided and refined various aspects of the CarLink II project - both for marketing and logistics; and, in the appendix, the authors present the protocol and summary of each focus group.
Shared-use vehicle services provide members access to a fleet of vehicles for use throughout the day, without the hassles and costs of individual auto ownership. From June 2001 to June 2002, the authors surveyed 28 North American shared-use vehicle service organizations on a range of topics, including business model approach, organizational size, strategic partnerships, pricing strategies, and technology applications.
To reduce transportation emissions and energy consumption, policy makers typically employ one of two approaches-changing technology or changing behavior. These strategies include demand management tools, such as ridesharing and vehicle control technologies that involve cleaner fuels and fuel economy. Despite the benefits of a combined policy approach, these strategies are normally employed separately. Nevertheless, they have been linked occasionally, for instance in the electric station car programs of the 1990s.
In recent years, shared-use vehicle systems have garnered a great deal of interest and activity internationally as an innovative mobility solution. In general, shared-use vehicle systems consist of a fleet of vehicles that are used by several different individuals throughout the day. Shared-use vehicles offer the convenience of a private automobile and more flexibility than public transportation alone.
Carsharing is the short-term use of a shared vehicle fleet by authorized members. Since 1998, U.S. carsharing services have experienced exponential growth. At present, there are 13 carsharing organizations. Over the past three years, electronic and wireless technologies have been developed that can facilitate carsharing system management in the U.S., improve customer services, and reduce program costs. This paper examines the U.S. carsharing market; the role of advanced tehchnology in program management, including CarLink lessons learned; and technology benefits to this nascent market.
There has been significant interest and activity in shared-use vehicle systems as an innovative mobility solution. Shared-use vehicle systems, that is, carsharing and station cars, consist of a fleet of vehicles used by several different individuals throughout the day. Shared-use vehicles offer the convenience of a private automobile and more flexibility than public transportation alone. From the 1990s to today, varying degrees of intelligent transportation system technologies have been applied to shared-use systems, providing better manageability and customer service.
Shared-use vehicle services provide members access to a vehicle fleet for use on an as-needed basis, without the hassles and costs of individual auto ownership. From June 2001 to July 2002, the authors surveyed 18 U.S. shared-use vehicle organizations on a range of topics, including organizational size, partnerships, pricing, costs, and technology. Although survey findings demonstrate a decline in the number of organizational starts in the last year, operational launches into new cities, membership, and fleet size continue to increase.
In the past, the majority of Chinese cities have developed with low-levels of automobile dependence, resulting in high-density centers that are well served by transit. However, a number of policies and factors are now in place that promote "motorization," resulting in increased automobile dependency in these cities. Increased personal automobile ownership in China is having a significant impact on the quality of human life in terms of land use, pollutant emissions, greenhouse gases, and energy supplies.