Alternative Fuel Vehicles

California’s Zero-Emission Vehicle Mandate – Linking Clean-Fuel Cars, Carsharing, and Station Car Strategies

Susan Shaheen, PhD, John Wright, and Daniel Sperling

To reduce transportation emissions and energy consumption, policy makers typically employ one of two approaches-changing technology or changing behavior. These strategies include demand management tools, such as ridesharing and vehicle control technologies that involve cleaner fuels and fuel economy. Despite the benefits of a combined policy approach, these strategies are normally employed separately. Nevertheless, they have been linked occasionally, for instance in the electric station car programs of the 1990s.

Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption: Sustainable Approaches for Surface Transportation

Susan Shaheen, PhD and Timothy Lipman, PhD

Climated change is rapidly becoming known as a tangible issue that must be addressed to avoid major environmental consequences in the future. Recent change in public opinion has been caused by the physical signs of climate change–melting glaciers, rising sea levels, more severe storm and drought events, and hotter average global temperatures annually. Transportation is a major contributor of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gas emissions from human activity, accounting for approximately 14 percent of total anthropogenic emissions globally and about 27 percent in the U.S.

Behavioral Response to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Refueling: Results of California Drive Clinics

Elliot Martin, Susan Shaheen, PhD, Timothy Lipman, PhD, and Jeffrey Lidicker

Over the last several decades, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) have emerged as a zero tailpipe-emission alternative to the battery electric vehicle (EV).   To address questions about consumer reaction to FCVs, this report presents the results of a “ride-and-drive” clinic series (n=182) held in 2007 with a Mercedes-Benz A-Class “F-Cell” hydrogen FCV. The clinic evaluated participant reactions to driving and riding in an FCV, as well as vehicle refueling. Pre-and post clinic surveys assessed consumer response.  More than 80% left with a positive overall impression of hydrogen.

Carsharing and the Built Environment: Geographic Information System-Based Study of One U.S. Operator

Tai Stillwater, Patricia Mokhtarian, and Susan Shaheen, PhD

The use of carsharing vehicles over a period of 16 months in 2006-07 was compared to built environment and demographic factors in this GIS-based multivariate regression study of an urban U.S. carsharing operator. Carsharing is a relatively new transportation industry in which companies provide members with short-term vehicle access from distributed neighborhood locations. The number of registered carsharing members in North America has doubled every year or two to a current level of approximately 320,000.

Economic Assessment of Electric-Drive Vehicle Operation in California and Other U.S. Regions

Jeffrey Lidicker, Timothy Lipman, PhD, and Susan Shaheen, PhD

This study examines the relative economics of electric vehicle operation in the context of current electricity rates in specific utility service territories. The authors examined 14 utility territories offering electric vehicle (EV) rates, focusing on California but also including other regions of theUnited States. The consumer costs of EV charging were examined in comparison with gasoline price data, geographic location, and during three highly variable gasoline price periods of July 2008, January 2009, and July 2009.

Creating Markets for Green Biofuels: Measuring and improving environmental performance

Brian Turner, Richard Plevin, Michael O'Hare, and Alexander Farrell

This study describes how some biofuels are produced, emphasizing agricultural production systems, and considers what is needed in order to measure and communicate environmental performance, and gives examples of how this might be done. We describe a set of seven uses of a Green Biofuels Index, from a wholly market-driven implementation through a set of increasingly intrusive regulatory approaches.

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

Alexander Farrell, Daniel Sperling, SM Arons, AR Brandt, MA Delucchi, A Eggert, AE Farrell, BK Haya, J Hughes, BM Jenkins, AD Jones, DM Kammen, SR Kaffka, CR Knittel, DM Lemoine, EW Martin, MW Melaina, JM Ogden, RJ Plevin, Sperling, Turner, Williams, Yang

Executive Order S-1-07, the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) (January 18, 2007), calls for a reduction of at least 10 percent in the carbon intensity of California’s transportation fuels by 2020. It instructed the Secretary of the California Environmental Protection Agency to coordinate activities between the University of California, the California Energy Commission (CEC) and other state agencies to develop and propose a draft compliance schedule to meet the 2020 Target. This report is the first of two by the University of California in response.

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 2: Policy Analysis

Alexander Farrell, Daniel Sperling, AR Brandt, A Eggert, AE Farrell, BK Haya, J Hughes, BM Jenkins, AD Jones, DM Kammen, CR Knittel, MW Melaina, M O'Hare, RJ Plevin, and D Sperling

The Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) can play a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and stimulating improvements in transportation fuel technologies so that California can meet its climate policy goals. In Part 1 of this study we evaluated the technical feasibility of achieving a 10 percent reduction in the carbon intensity (measured in gCO2e/MJ) of transportation fuels in California by 2020. We identified six scenarios based on a variety of different technologies that could meet or exceed this goal, and concluded that the goal was ambitious but attainable.

Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-Term Supply Potential of Domestic Biofuels

Andrew Jones, Michael O'Hare, and Alexander Farrell

We estimate the physical supply potential of biofuels from domestic municipal solid waste, forestry residues, crops residues and energy crops grown on existing cropland using optimistic assumptions about near-term conversion technologies. It is technically feasible to produce a significant amount of liquid biofuel (equivalent to 30-100% of 2003 gasoline demand) without reducing domestically produced food and fiber crops or reducing the total calories available as domestic animal feed.

Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific and Technical Review for Near-Term Stationary Power Demonstration Projects, Final Report

Tim Lipman and Nihar Shah

This report documents the research efforts of a task order under a research technical agreement between the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and the University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley). The focus of this research is to understand the scientific and technical aspects of the potential use of ammonia and other related carbon-free energy carriers for hydrogen fuel cell applications.