Alternative Fuel Vehicles

Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific and Technical Review for Near-Term Stationary Power Demonstration Projects, Final Report

Tim Lipman and Nihar Shah

This report documents the research efforts of a task order under a research technical agreement between the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and the University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley). The focus of this research is to understand the scientific and technical aspects of the potential use of ammonia and other related carbon-free energy carriers for hydrogen fuel cell applications. Caltrans has a range of potential applications for fuel cell technology, including various field operations and for providing emergency backup power, power “demand response”...

Dynamics in Behavioral Response to Fuel-Cell Vehicle Fleet and Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure

Susan Shaheen, Elliot Martin, and Timothy Lipman

Transportation is a major contributor of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gas emissions from human activity. It accounts for approximately 14% of total anthropogenic emissions globally and about 27% in the United States. Growing concern regarding the impacts of climate change and greenhouse gas emissions has led to innovations in automotive and fueltechnology. However, behavioral response to the newest transportation technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) and fueling infrastructure, is not well understood. This paper examines the results of an exploratory F-Cell...

Energy and Greenhouse Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis

Daniel Kammen, Alexander Farrell, Richard Plevin, Andrew Jones, Gregory Nemet, and Mark Delucchi

In this paper, we review some of the basic energy balance and climate change impact issues associated with biofuels. For both the basic energy and greenhouse gas balances of producing and using a range of fuels, and for the increasingly debated and important issues of nongreenhouse gas impacts such as land, fertilizer, and water use, we conclude that an improved framework for the analysis and evaluation of biofuels is needed. These new methodologies and data sets are needed on both physical and socioeconomic aspects of the life-cycle of biofuels. We detail some of components that...

Zero-emission vehicle exposure within U.S. carsharing fleets and impacts on sentiment toward electric-drive vehicles

Susan Shaheen, PhD, Elliot Martin, and Hannah Totte

Reducing carbon emissions from the United States (U.S.) transportation sector has emerged as a priority action to combat climate changeCarsharing and zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) could be integral to creating a more sustainable transportation system. This paper presents the results of a study that evaluated the impacts of...

Hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle performance and user-response assessment: Results of an extended driver study

Timothy Lipman, PhD
Matthew Elke
Jeffrey Lidicker

This study examined driver acceptance and performance of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles as tested in real-world conditions over a two-year period. The study sample was a volunteer group of “n = 54” drivers who drove the vehicle for a month-long trial period. Each driver took ‘before’ and ‘after’ surveys regarding their driving experience. Drivers drove an average of 1400 miles per month, and either witnessed and/or performed vehicle refueling 3–10 times during their test period.

Key findings from the study include that: 1) 80% of study participant drivers found...

Analysis of the Combined Vehicle- And Post-Vehicle-Use Value Of Lithium-Ion Plug-In Vehicle Propulsion Batteries

Brett Williams
Timothy Lipman, PhD

California’s promising market for the widespread introduction of plug‐in vehicles exists due to advances in electric‐drive technology such as lithium‐ion batteries and the development of strong policy drivers including California’s Global Warming Solutions Act. However, high battery costs continue to present a significant hurdle to commercialization. This report builds upon previous research that examined the potential to lower battery lease payments by repurposing used vehicle batteries for stationary use as distributed electrical storage devices to support the grid. Such devices might...

Optimizing fermentation process miscanthus-to-ethanol biorefinery scale under uncertain conditions

Matthew Bomberg
Daniel Sanchez
Timothy Lipman, PhD

Ethanol produced from cellulosic feedstocks has garnered significant interest for greenhouse gas abatement and energy security promotion. One outstanding question in the development of a mature cellulosic ethanol industry is the optimal scale of biorefining activities. This question is important for companies and entrepreneurs seeking to construct and operate cellulosic ethanol biorefineries as it determines the size of investment needed and the amount of feedstock for which they must contract. The question also has important implications for the nature and location of lifecycle...

“Recent Deployment and Capacity Trends for Stationary Fuel Cell Systems in the U.S.” in Data, Facts and Figures on Fuel Cells

Max Wei
Shuk Han Chan
Ahmad Mayyas
Timothy Lipman, PhD

This ready reference is unique in collating in one scientifically precise and comprehensive handbook the widespread data on what is feasible and realistic in modern fuel cell technology.

Edited by one of the leading scientists in this exciting area, the short, uniformly written chapters provide economic data for cost considerations and a full overview of demonstration data, covering such topics as fuel cells for transportation, fuel provision, codes and standards.

The result is highly reliable facts and figures for engineers, researchers and decision makers working in the...

"Hydrogen Production Science and Technology" in Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

Timothy Lipman, PhD

The Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology (ESST) addresses the grand challenge for science and engineering today. It provides unprecedented, peer-reviewed coverage in more than 550 separate entries comprising 38 topical sections. ESST establishes a foundation for the many sustainability and policy evaluations being performed in institutions worldwide.

An indispensable resource for scientists and engineers in developing new technologies and for applying existing technologies to sustainability, the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology is presented at...

Evaluating the public perception of a feebate policy in California through the estimation and cross-validation of an ordinal regression model

Elliot Martin, PhD
Susan Shaheen, PhD
Timothy Lipman, PhD
Madonna Camel

Understanding the key factors influencing policy perception can be critical for informing the design of public policies. Feebates is a unique public policy that is meant to influence vehicle purchases. It presents buyers with a rebate for purchasing low-emission vehicles and a fee for purchasing high-emission vehicles. Because feebates directly impacts the consumer, understanding the dynamics of public perception, support, and opposition is important. This study explores the public perception of a potential feebate policy within California, and evaluates the robustness of an ordinal...