Alternative Fuel Vehicles

Lessons learned from the installation and operation of Northern California's first 70-MPa hydrogen fueling station

Timothy Lipman, PhD
Maggie Witt
Matthew Elke

A hydrogen dispensing facility capable of providing rapid 70-MPa vehicle fills became operational in May 2011 as the first such hydrogen dispensing facility in Northern California. The facility is operated by the University of California – Berkeley in support of fuel cell vehicle research with automakers, regional and state agencies, and industrial groups. In addition to storing and dispensing high-pressure hydrogen fuel, the station also incorporates a number of key advances in hydrogen refueling system capabilities, including novel fuel pre-cooling, fuel storage, and system safety...

Lifecycle cost assessment and carbon dioxide emissions of diesel, natural gas, hybrid electric, fuel cell hybrid and electric transit buses

Antti Lajunen, PhD
Timothy Lipman, PhD

This paper evaluates the lifecycle costs and carbon dioxide emissions of different types of city buses. The simulation models of the different powertrains were developed in the Autonomie vehicle simulation software. The carbon dioxide emissions were calculated both for the bus operation and for the fuel and energy pathways from well to tank. Two different operating environment case scenarios were used for the primary energy sources, which were Finland and California (USA). The fuel and energy pathways were selected appropriately in relation to the operating environment. The lifecycle...

Emerging Technologies for Higher Fuel Economy Automobile Standards

Timothy Lipman, PhD

Transportation systems contribute significantly to air pollution and ∼15% globally and ∼25% in the United States to emissions climate-changing gases. In the United States, the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for motor vehicles were significantly raised in 2012 for the first time in almost three decades. The standards now call for an average across manufacturers of 54.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for new passenger cars by 2025, or 163 grams per mile (g/mi) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and of 47 mpg (196 g/mi) by 2021. The light truck standards, which include minivans...

Wind-Assist Marine Demonstration for Ferries: Prospects for Saving Diesel Fuel with Wind Power

Timothy Lipman, PhD
Jeffrey Lidicker

This sailing vessel testing, data collection and analysis project examined the real world potential for a novel carbon-fiber wingsail technology to reduce fuel use in potential passenger ferryboat applications. The project involved building a carbon fiber, computer-controlled wingsail that was then mounted on a 14-meter trimaran test vessel with a complete instrumentation package. The vessel was then operated on the San Francisco Bay over a three-month period. The test results were conclusive that, for a test vessel traveling at seven knots though water, up to 25 to 40 percent of the...