Bikesharing

Shared Mobility Policy Playbook

Susan Shaheen, PhD, Adam Cohen, Michael Randolph, Emily Farrar, Richard Davis, and Aqshems Nichols
2019

The Shared Mobility Policy Playbook provides an introduction and definitions of shared mobility services, mode-specific resources for agencies looking to develop policies in their community, and policy-focused tools demonstrating case studies and best practices for shared mobility. 

Chapter 13 - Sharing strategies: carsharing, shared micromobility (bikesharing and scooter sharing), transportation network companies, microtransit, and other innovative mobility modes

Susan Shaheen, PhD, Adam Cohen, Nelson Chan, and Apaar Bansal
2020

Shared mobility—the shared use of a vehicle, bicycle, or other mode—is an innovative transportation strategy that enables users to gain short-term access to transportation modes on an “as-needed” basis. It includes various forms of carsharing, bikesharing, scooter sharing, ridesharing (carpooling and vanpooling), transportation network companies (TNCs), and microtransit. Included in this ecosystem are smartphone “apps” that aggregate and optimize these mobility options, as well as “courier network services” that provide last mile package and food delivery.

Bikesharing in Europe, the Americas, and Asia: Past, Present and Future

Susan Shaheen
Stacey Guzman
Hua Zhang
2010

Growing concerns over global motorization and climate change have led to increasing interest in sustainable transportation alternatives, such as bikesharing (the shared use of a bicycle fleet). Since 1965, bikesharing has grown across the globe on four continents including: Europe, North America, South America, and Asia (including Australia). Today, there are approximately 100 bikesharing programs operating in an estimated 125 cities around the world with over 139,300 bicycles.

Bikesharing across the Globe

Susan Shaheen Ph.D. , Stacey Guzman, Hua Zhang
2012

Concerns about global climate change, energy security, and unstable fuel prices have caused many decision makers and policy experts worldwideto closely examine the need for more sustainable transportation strate- gies. Sustainable strategies include clean fuels, vehicle technologies, trans- portation demand management, and integrated land use and transportation strategies (Shaheen and Lipman 2007). Bikesharing—the shared use of a bicycle fleet—is one mobility strategy that could help address many of these concerns.

Shared Micromoblity Policy Toolkit: Docked and Dockless Bike and Scooter Sharing

Susan Shaheen, PhD and Adam Cohen
2019

This toolkit outlines policies and practices for cities integrating shared micromobility into the built environment. The toolkit is divided into four sections that: 1) define shared micromobility and its impacts, 2) describe users of shared micromobility and market potential, 3) review best practices and case studies for curb space management and related policies, and 4) provide a summary of key findings from the toolkit.

Shared-Use Vehicle Services for Sustainable Transportation: Carsharing, Bikesharing, and Personal Vehicle Sharing Across the Globe

Susan Shaheen, PhD
2012

This special issue of the International Journal of Sustainable Transportation highlights developments in shared-use vehicle research, in particular carsharing, public bikesharing, and personal vehicle sharing. Since the mid-1980s, shared-use vehicle services have gained momentum across the world. Developments include a range of operational models—private, non-profit, and governmental ventures; advanced technology; worldwide entry and growth; collaboration and competition; and increased activity by auto rental companies and automakers.

Understanding the Diffusion of Public Bikesharing Systems: Evidence from Europe and North America

Stephen Parkes
Greg Mardsen
Susan Shaheen, PhD
Adam Cohen
2013

Since the mid-2000s, public bikesharing (also known as ‘‘bike hire’’) has developed and spread into a new form of mobility in cities across the globe. This paper presents an analysis of the recent increase in the number of public bikesharing systems. Bikesharing is the shared use of a bicycle fleet, which is accessible to the public and serves as a form of public transportation. The initial system designs were pioneered in Europe and, after a series of technological innovations, appear to have matured into a system experiencing widespread adoption.

Bicycle Evolution in China: From the 1900s to the Present

Hua Zhang
Susan Shaheen, PhD
Xingpeng Chen
2013

This article examines four phases in bicycle evolution in China from initial entry and slow growth (1900s to 1978), to rapid growth (1978 to 1995), bicycle use reduction (1995 to 2002), and policy diversification (2002 to present). Two bicycle innovations, electric bikes, and public bikesharing (the shared use of a bicycle fleet), are also explored in this article. Electric bikes could provide a transitional mode on the pathway to bicycle and public transportation integration or to small battery electric cars.

Public Bikesharing in North America: Early Operator Understanding and Emerging Trends

Susan Shaheen, PhD
Adam Cohen
Elliot Martin, PhD
2013

Public bikesharing—the shared use of a bicycle fleet by the public—is an innovative mobility strategy that has recently emerged in major North American cities. Bikesharing systems typically position bicycles throughout an urban environment, among a network of docking stations, for immediate access. Approximately five years ago, information technology (or IT)-based bikesharing services began to emerge in North America.