Bikesharing

Shared-Use Vehicle Services for Sustainable Transportation: Carsharing, Bikesharing, and Personal Vehicle Sharing Across the Globe

Susan Shaheen, PhD
2012

This special issue of the International Journal of Sustainable Transportation highlights developments in shared-use vehicle research, in particular carsharing, public bikesharing, and personal vehicle sharing. Since the mid-1980s, shared-use vehicle services have gained momentum across the world. Developments include a range of operational models—private, non-profit, and governmental ventures; advanced technology; worldwide entry and growth; collaboration and competition; and increased activity by auto rental companies and automakers.

Understanding the Diffusion of Public Bikesharing Systems: Evidence from Europe and North America

Stephen Parkes
Greg Mardsen
Susan Shaheen, PhD
Adam Cohen
2013

Since the mid-2000s, public bikesharing (also known as ‘‘bike hire’’) has developed and spread into a new form of mobility in cities across the globe. This paper presents an analysis of the recent increase in the number of public bikesharing systems. Bikesharing is the shared use of a bicycle fleet, which is accessible to the public and serves as a form of public transportation. The initial system designs were pioneered in Europe and, after a series of technological innovations, appear to have matured into a system experiencing widespread adoption. There are also signs that the policy of...

Bicycle Evolution in China: From the 1900s to the Present

Hua Zhang
Susan Shaheen, PhD
Xingpeng Chen
2013

This article examines four phases in bicycle evolution in China from initial entry and slow growth (1900s to 1978), to rapid growth (1978 to 1995), bicycle use reduction (1995 to 2002), and policy diversification (2002 to present). Two bicycle innovations, electric bikes, and public bikesharing (the shared use of a bicycle fleet), are also explored in this article. Electric bikes could provide a transitional mode on the pathway to bicycle and public transportation integration or to small battery electric cars. Four lessons have been learned from China’s electric bike experience relevant to...

Public Bikesharing in North America: Early Operator Understanding and Emerging Trends

Susan Shaheen, PhD
Adam Cohen
Elliot Martin, PhD
2013

Public bikesharing—the shared use of a bicycle fleet by the public—is an innovative mobility strategy that has recently emerged in major North American cities. Bikesharing systems typically position bicycles throughout an urban environment, among a network of docking stations, for immediate access. Approximately five years ago, information technology (or IT)-based bikesharing services began to emerge in North America. Between 2007 and March 2013, 28 IT-based programs have been deployed–24 are operational, two are temporarily suspended, and two are now defunct in the United States (U.S.)...

Public Bikesharing and Modal Shift Behavior: A Comparative Study of Early Bikesharing Systems in North America

Susan Shaheen, PhD
Elliot Martin, PhD
Adam Cohen
2013

Public bikesharing—the shared use of a bicycle fleet by the public—is an innovative mobility strategy that has recently emerged in major North American cities. Bikesharing systems typically position bicycles throughout an urban environment, among a network of docking stations, for immediate access. This paper discusses the modal shift that results from individuals participating in four public bikesharing systems in North America. The authors conducted an online survey (n =10,661 total sample), between November 2011 and January 2012, with members of four major bikesharing organizations (...

Evaluating Public Transit Modal Shift Dynamics In Response to Bikesharing: A Tale of Two U.S. Cities

Elliot Martin, PhD
Susan Shaheen, PhD
2014

Public bikesharing—the shared use of a bicycle fleet—has recently emerged in major North American cities. Bikesharing has been found to decrease driving and increase bicycling. But shifts in public transit have been mixed. The authors evaluate survey data from two U.S. cities to explore who is shifting toward and away from public transit as a result of bikesharing. The authors explore this question by mapping geocoded home and work locations of respondents within Washington DC and Minneapolis. Respondents were mapped by their modal shift toward or away from bus and rail transit. The...

Improving California’s Bay Area Rapid Transit District Connectivity and Access with Segway Human Transporter and Other Low-Speed Mobility Devices

Susan A. Shaheen, Caroline J. Rodier, and Amanda M. Eaken
2003

To evaluate the potential for low-speed modes to improve transit access, the EasyConnect field test will offer shared-use Segway Human Transporters(HT), electric bicycles, and bicycles linked to a Bay Area Rapid Transit District station surrounding employment centers in California. Because of safety concerns, research was conducted to understand the risks associated with these modes and potential risk factors. A review of the safety literature indicates that user error is the major cause of low-speed mode crashes, and significant risk factors are poor surface conditions and...

EasyConnect II:Integrating Transportation, Information, and Energy Technologies at Transit Oriented Developments

Susan A. Shaheen, Ph.D., Caroline J. Rodier, Ph.D., and Joshua Seelig
2005

The integration of innovative technologies with traditional modal options in transit oriented developments (TODs) may be the key to providing the kind of high-quality transit service that can effectively compete with the automobile in suburban transit corridors. The EasyConnect II project represents a multi-technology integration of innovative strategies planned to enhance transit use during the development and construction of a suburban TOD at the Pleasant Hill Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District station in the East San Francisco Bay Area. The project team represents a unique...

EasyConnect: Low-Speed Modes Linked to Transit Planning Project

Susan A. Shaheen, Ph.D. and Caroline Rodier, Ph.D.
2006

The EasyConnect Low-Speed Modes Linked to Transit Planning Project (TO 5113) project represents the integration of innovative strategies to enhance transit use during the development and construction of a suburban transit oriented development at the Pleasant Hill Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District station in the East San Francisco Bay Area. This planning project brings together a unique partnership including small technology businesses, transportation agencies, city and county government, and academia. The project components include the introduction of shared-use low speed mode...

EasyConnect: Low-Speed Modes Linked to Public Transit Field Test Results

Susan A. Shaheen, Ph.D. and Caroline J. Rodier, Ph.D.
2008

Access from public transit stations to employment and home locations can be a significant barrier to public transportation use in many urban regions, which is also commonly known as the “first and last mile” problem. The EasyConnect field test operated from August 2005 to December 2006 to introduce shared-use electric bicycles, non-motorized bicycles, and Segway® Human Transporters (HTs) to employment centers in and around the Pleasant Hill BART District stations. EasyConnect linked 36 employees of 14 companies at the Contra Costa Centre and Fresenius Medical. Contra Costa Centre...