EasyConnect II: Integrating Transportation, Information, and Energy Technologies at the Pleasant Hill BART Transit Oriented Development

Susan A. Shaheen, PhD, Caroline Rodier, PhD, Tagan Blake, Jeffrey R. Lidicker, and Elliot Martin

Smart growth policy strategies attempt to control increasing auto travel, congestion, and vehicle emissions by redirecting new development into communities with a high-intensity mix of shopping, jobs, and housing that is served by high-quality modal alternatives to single occupant vehicles. The integration of innovative technologies with traditional modal options in transit-oriented developments (TODs) may be the key to providing the kind of high-quality transit service that can effectively compete with the automobile in suburban transit corridors. A major challenge, however, of such...

China’s Hangzhou Public Bicycle: Understanding Early Adoption and Behavioral Response to Bikesharing

Susan A. Shaheen, PhD, Hue Zhang, Elliot Martin, and Stacy Guzman

Over the past 20 years, China has experienced a steady decline in bicycle use. To address this trend, China’s central and local government for urban transportation created Public Transit Priority to encourage public transport initiatives. As part of this effort, the government of the city of Hangzhou launched Hangzhou Public Bicycle in 2008. This service allows members to access a shared fleet of bicycles. As of March 2011, Hangzhou Public Bicycle operated 60,600 bicycles with 2,416 fixed stations in eight core districts. To understand factors leading to bikesharing adoption and...

California Department of Transportation, District 4 Employee Bikesharing Pilot Program Evaluation

Susan A. Shaheen, Ph.D., Madonna Camel, and Meera Velu

Bikesharing, the short-term rental of a shared fleet of bicycles, is one strategy to improve the environment, air quality, and community health. This study, sponsored by the California Department of Transportation, explores the feasibility of an employee bikesharing program and includes a literature review on bikesharing projects, a description of the Caltrans District 4 employee bikesharing pilot, and user analyses (surveys and usage).

Worldwide Bikesharing

Susan Shaheen, PhD and Stacy Guzman

Bikesharing has evolved greatly since the first program was launched in the Netherlands in the mid-1960s. As of May 2011, there were an estimated 136 bikesharing programs in 165 cities around the world, with 237,000 bikes on the streets. In the Americas, bikesharing activity has spread to Canada, Mexico, the US, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. Asia, which represents the fastest-growing bikesharing market today, has programs in China, South Korea, and Taiwan.

Shared-Use Vehicle Services for Sustainable Transportation: Carsharing, Bikesharing, and Personal Vehicle Sharing Across the Globe

Susan Shaheen, PhD and Adam Cohen

This special issue of the International Journal of Sustainable Transportation highlights developments in shared-use vehicle research, in particular carsharing, public bikesharing, and personal vehicle sharing. Since the mid-1980s, shared-use vehicle services have gained momentum across the world. Developments include a range of operational models—private, non-profit, and governmental ventures; advanced technology; worldwide entry and growth; collaboration and competition; and increased activity by auto rental companies and automakers.

Public Bikesharing in North America: Early Operator Understanding and Emerging Trends

Susan A. Shaheen, Ph.D., Adam P. Cohen, and Elliot W. Martin, Ph.D.

Public bikesharing—the shared use of a bicycle fleet—is an innovative mobility strategy that has recently emerged in major North American cities. Bikesharing systems typically position bicycles throughout an urban environment, among a network of docking stations, for immediate access. Approximately five years ago, information technology (or IT)-based bikesharing services began to emerge in North America. Since 2007, 27 IT-based programs have been deployed–26 are operational and one is now defunct. Bikesharing growth potential in North America is examined on the basis of a survey of...

Public Bikesharing and Modal Shift Behavior: A Comparative Study of Early Bikesharing Systems in North America

Susan Shaheen, PhD, Elliot Martin, PhD, and Adam Cohen

Public bikesharing—the shared use of a bicycle fleet by the public—is an innovative mobility strategy that has recently emerged in major North American cities. Bikesharing systems typically position bicycles throughout an urban environment, among a network of docking stations, for immediate access. This paper discusses the modal shift that results from individuals participating in four public bikesharing systems in North America. We conducted an online survey (n =10,661 total sample), between November 2011 and January 2012, with members of four major bikesharing organizations (...

Evaluating Public Transit Modal Shift Dynamics in Response to Bikesharing: A Tale of Two U.S. Cities

Elliot Martin, PhD and Susan Shaheen, PhD

Public bikesharing—the shared use of a bicycle fleet—has recently emerged in major North American cities. Bikesharing has been found to decrease driving and increase bicycling. But shifts in public transit have been mixed. The authors evaluate survey data from two U.S. cities to explore who is shifting toward and away from public transit as a result of bikesharing. The authors explore this question by mapping geocoded home and work locations of respondents within Washington DC and Minneapolis. Respondents were mapped by their modal shift toward or away from bus and rail transit. The...

Trends and Trajectory of Shared Mobility

Susan Shaheen, PhD


• Carsharing: History, Worldwide and North America Growth, Personal Vehicle Sharing, and Autonomous Vehicles

• Public Bikesharing: History, Worldwide and North American Growth, and North American Operations

• Ridesharing / Ridematching: History and Current Status

Understanding the Diffusion of Public Bikesharing Systems: Evidence from Europe and North America

Susan Shaheen, PhD and Adam Cohen

Since the mid-2000s, public bikesharing (also known as ‘‘bike hire’’) has developed and spread into a new form of mobility in cities across the globe. This paper presents an analysis of the recent increase in the number of public bikesharing systems. Bikesharing is the shared use of a bicycle fleet, which is accessible to the public and serves as a form of public transportation. The initial system designs were pioneered in Europe and, after a series of technological innovations, appear to have matured into a system experiencing widespread adoption. There are also signs that the policy of...