Caroline Rodier, PhD, Susan Shaheen, PhD, and Ellen Cavanagh
In the past five years, commercial vehicle travel has increased 60 percent on California’s highways, without a corresponding increase in compliance inspection station capacity or enforcement officers. Commercial vehicles that do not comply with regulations impose significant public costs including, for example, pavement and structural damage to roads and catastrophic crashes.
Climated change is rapidly becoming known as a tangible issue that must be addressed to avoid major environmental consequences in the future. Recent change in public opinion has been caused by the physical signs of climate change–melting glaciers, rising sea levels, more severe storm and drought events, and hotter average global temperatures annually. Transportation is a major contributor of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gas emissions from human activity, accounting for approximately 14 percent of total anthropogenic emissions globally and about 27 percent in the U.S.
The number of senior citizens is expected to double by the year 2020, representing 18% of the nation’s population. After age 75, driving performance begins to decline due to changes in health and medication effects. Indeed, one quarter of seniors over 75 are expected to require alternative transportation services in the future. This chapter examines transit and innovative mobility options to better meet the needs of the growing older population in the near (2011) and more distant (2021) future.
Elliot Martin, Ph.D.; Nelson Chan; Susan Shaheen, Ph.D.
Ecodriving, the concept of changing driving behavior and vehicle maintenance to affect fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in existing vehicles, has recently gained prominence in North America. One ecodriving strategy involves public education with information disseminated on the Internet. This paper presents the results of a study conducted from June to December 2010 that assessed the effectiveness of static, web-based information on ecodriving with controlled stated responses from approximately 100 faculty, staff, and students at the University of California, Berkeley.
Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) have primarily focused on systems management. To further improve connectivity and safety in the future, ITS might embrace a more holistic planning approach. While the future of ITS remains an open question, its evolution is closely linked to how the world evolves on many dimensions¾social, political, economic, legal, and environmental. In this paper, the authors present results from four expert workshops.
Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) represent a group of technologies that can improve transportation system management and public transit, as well as individual decisions surrounding many aspects of travel. ITS technologies include state-of-the art wireless, electronic, and automated technologies with a goal to improve surface transportation safety, efficiency, and convenience. Reducing energy consumption, while not a primary goal for ITS, is a demonstrated ITS benefit in certain circumstances.
There has been significant interest and activity in shared-use vehicle systems as an innovative mobility solution. Shared-use vehicle systems, that is, carsharing and station cars, consist of a fleet of vehicles used by several different individuals throughout the day. Shared-use vehicles offer the convenience of a private automobile and more flexibility than public transportation alone. From the 1990s to today, varying degrees of intelligent transportation system technologies have been applied to shared-used systems, providing better manageability and customer service.
Most trips in U.S. metropolitan regions are drive-alone car trips, an expensive and inefficient means of moving people. A more efficient system would allow drivers to share cars. Such a system is often less convenient for travelers, but convenience can be enhanced by deploying “smart” technologies in concert with shared-use vehicles and transit.
With a projected rise in the number of elderly, most of whom have also relied primarily on the private automobile for their mobility, it is likely that future adaptations in vehicle design will be linked in some part to the physical infirmities often faced by the elderly. This paper offers a bridge between medical research on the physical impairments of the elderly and automobile design and driving safety. The authors describe recent findings on the driving-related physical and cognitive impairments faced by the elderly.
Public transportation systems are comprised of extensive bus networks, light rail, and heavy rail extending to most major destinations. However, efficient transit station access is often limited. In the U.S., a more comprehensive approach is needed that offers a range of integrated “door-todoor” mobility services that enhance connectivity, provide customer flexibility, and potentially increase transit ridership.