Mobility on Demand (MOD) and Mobility as a Service (MaaS): Similarities, Differences, and Potential Implications for Transportation in the Developing World

Abstract: 

Innovative and emerging transportation services, such as shared mobility, MOD, and MaaS, are expanding across the developing world. MOD emphasizes the commodification of passenger mobility and goods delivery and transportation systems management, whereas MaaS primarily focuses on passenger mobility aggregation and subscription services. The public sector can support and leverage MOD and MaaS through a variety of service, information, fare integration, and data sharing partnerships. In particular, the growth of “super” apps in Africa and Asia are offering consumers all-in-one mobile platforms for a variety of transportation and shopping options, mobile wallets, and other services that, in some cases, offer deeper levels of integration and are more advanced than comparable platforms in Europe and North America. While research on “super” apps is limited, anecdotal evidence suggests that by bundling a variety of consumer services together, these apps have the potential to enhance traveler convenience, multimodal trip planning, and access to goods and services.

Author: 
Susan Shaheen, PhD, Adam Cohen
Publication date: 
September 1, 2021
Publication type: 
Report
Citation: 
Shaheen, S., and Cohen, A. (2021). Mobility on Demand (MOD) and Mobility as a Service (MaaS): Similarities, Differences, and Potential Implications for Transportation in the Developing World. World Bank. https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/transport/publication/mobility-and-development