The California Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate, adopted in 1990, was aimed at increasing the sale and dissemination of low- or zero-emission vehicles throughout the California auto market. ZEVs include plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHVs) and all-electric vehicles (EVs). In an attempt to accelerate the exposure of ZEVs in the general population, in 2001, additional credits were allotted to automakers in return for placing ZEVs into transportation networks, such as carsharing fleets. This policy is set to end in 2018. This white paper presents the results of a study that evaluated the impacts of ZEV exposure on United States carsharing users. Two surveys were administered to members of several carsharing organizations that use PHVs or EVs in their fleet including: car2go, DriveNow, eGo, and Zipcar. One was a control group survey, which was comprised of 1,742 respondents, and the other was an experimental group survey, covering 1,920 respondents.
The results support that exposure to PHVs or EVs through carsharing has influenced customer ZEV perceptions to be more positive and has commensurately increased the propensity for an individual to buy a ZEV. Furthermore, the data suggest that certain socio-demographic groups, such as younger people and women, are more interested in purchasing these vehicles after using them in carsharing.