Carsharing

Pooled Cars

Susan Shaheen, PhD
1999

A condensed version of a previous paper, “A Short History of Carsharing in the 90s.” This paper provides an overview of North American, Asian, and European carsharing organizations and European innovations and advanced technologies. This paper also reflects on the lessons learned from international experiences. The author concludes with a list of conditions and recommendations for strategies that could be instrumental to carsharing success.

Carsharing: Niche Market or New Pathway?

Daniel Sperling and Susan Shaheen, PhD
1999

The premise of carsharing is simple. Households access, as needed, a fleet of shared-use vehicles. Individuals gain the benefit of private car use without the costs and responsibilities of ownership, and society gains large economic, environmental, and social benefits as a result of more efficient vehicle usage. But will these benefits be realized? The answer is unknown due to limited international experience and a virtual absence of credible analysis. It may be, however, that the more important benefits of carsharing are its indirect and unforeseen consequences. It may be that...

Dynamics in Behavioral Adaptation to a Transportation Innovation: A Case Study of Carlink–A Smart Carsharing System

Susan Shaheen, PhD
1999

Most trips in U.S. metropolitan regions are drive-alone car trips, an expensive and inefficient means of moving people. A more efficient system would allow drivers to share cars. Such a system is often less convenient for travelers, but convenience can be enhanced by deploying “smart” technologies in concert with shared-use vehicles and transit.

The motivation for this research is to determine how the use of information and communication technologies can enhance flexibility and mobility—and what value travelers will place on these new transportation means. My dissertation, using new...

Carlink: A Smart Carsharing System— A Study of Behavioral Adaptation

Susan A. Shaheen, Ph.D
2000

Most trips in U.S. metropolitan regions are drive-alone car trips, an expensive and inefficient transportation form. A more efficient, but often less convenient, system allows drivers to share cars. Carsharing organizations are becoming common throughout Europe and North America. Shared-use vehicles offer a modal alternative that can make metropolitan regions more livable.
A shared-use system aims to reduce traffic by reducing the number of cars needed by households and encouraging commuters to walk, bike, and use transit, at least for part of their trips. Further,...

Carlink – A Smart Carsharing System Field Test Report

Susan Shaheen, Ph.D., John Wright, David Dick, and Linda Novick
2000

Most trips in U.S. metropolitan regions are driven alone, which is costly to individuals and society and leads to congestion and air pollution. A more efficient, but less convenient system would allow drivers to share cars. A shared-use system aims to reduce traffic by reducing the number of cars needed by households and encouraging commuters to walk, bike, and use transit, at least for part of their trips. For commuters especially, shared-use vehicles could offer a low-cost, low-hassle alternative to private vehicles. Furthermore, carsharing could help air quality by incorporating...

CarLink Economics: An Empirically-Based Scenario Analysis

Susan Shaheen, PhD and Robert Uyeki
2000

Most cars carry one person and are used for less than one hour per day. A more economically rational approach would be to use vehicles more intensively. Carsharing, in which a group of people pay a subscription plus a per-use fee, is one such strategy. Smart carsharing employs advanced technology to facilitate tracking, billing, and system management. CarLink, a smart carsharing system, was deployed in the San Francisco Bay Area for ten months in 1999 to test this concept. This paper describes the CarLink economic data, and through scenario analysis, identifies several market...

The CarLink II Pilot Program: Examining the Viability of Transit-Based Carsharing

Susan Shaheen, PhD and John Wright
2001

The automobile is the dominant travel mode throughout the U.S., while transit accounts for less than four percent of market share. Between these principal modes, niche markets exist for other transportation services, such as transit feeder shuttles and carsharing. Commuter-based carsharing, in which individuals share a fleet of vehicles linked to transit, could potentially fill and expand one such niche, complement existing services, and develop into an economically viable transportation alternative. While most transit shuttles rely heavily upon governmental support, carsharing has...

The CarLink II Pilot Program: Testing a Commuter-Based Carsharing Model

Susan Shaheen, PhD and John Wright
2001

The automobile is the dominant travel mode throughout the U.S., while transit accounts for less than four percent of market share. Between these principal modes, niche markets exist for other transportation services, such as transit feeder shuttles and carsharing. Commuter-based carsharing, in which individuals share a fleet of vehicles linked to transit, could potentially fill and expand one such niche, complement existing services, and develop into an economically viable transportation alternative. While most transit shuttles rely heavily upon governmental support, carsharing has...

CarLink II: Research Approach and Early Findings

Susan Shaheen, Ph.D, John Wright
2001

In this report, the authors describe the key differences between the CarLink I and CarLink II models; describe in detail how feedback from focus groups guided and refined various aspects of the CarLink II project – both for marketing and logistics; and, in the appendix, the authors present the protocol and summary of each focus group.

Examining Intelligent Transportation Technology Elements and Operational Methodologies for Shared-Use Vehicle Systems

Matt Barth, Michael Todd, Susan Shaheen, PhD
2002

As an innovative mobility solution, there has been significant interest and activity in shared-use vehicle systems. Shared-use vehicle systems (i.e., carsharing, station cars) consist of a fleet of vehicles that are used by several different individuals throughout the day. Shared-use vehicles offer the convenience of a private automobile and more flexibility than public transportation alone. In recent years, varying degrees of intelligent transportation system technologies have been applied to shared-used systems, providing better manageability and customer service. Many shared-use...