Carsharing: A Guide for Local Planners

Adam Cohen, Susan Shaheen, PhD, and Ryan McKenzie

Transportation issues can create seemingly no-win conflicts for planners, whether it’s dealing with traffic demand management, wrangling over parking requirements, addressing quality of life issues that accompany traffic congestion, or trying to reduce vehicle emissions to forestall climate change. A new “product-as-service” approach to vehicle use, called carsharing, is springing up in major metropolitan markets, smaller districts, and university campuses all across the country.

Smart Parking Pilot on the Coaster Commuter Rail Line in San Diego, California

Tagan Blake, Caroline Rodier, Ph.D, and Susan Shaheen, Ph.D

Increasingly, public transit authorities are harnessing advances in sensor, payment, and enforcement technologies to operate parking facilities more efficiently. In the short term, these innovations promise to enhance customer parking experiences, increase the effective supply of existing parking with minimal investment, and increase ridership and overall revenue. Over the longer term, these systems could further expand ridership by generating revenue to add parking capacity and improve access.

Carsharing and Public Parking Policies: Assessing Benefits, Costs, and Best Practices in North America

Susan Shaheen, PhD, Caroline Rodier, PhD, Gail Murray, Adam Cohen, and Elliot Martin, PhD

At present, local jurisdictions across North America are evaluating how best to provide parking spaces to carsharing vehicles in a fair and equitable manner. Some have initiated implementation of carsharing parking policies, and many continue to evolve as the demand and need for carsharing grows. Many others are seeking guidance on carsharing parking, based on the fledgling experience of other cities. This study documents the state of the practice with respect to carsharing and parking policies in North America.

Carsharing in Shanghai, China: Analysis of Behavioral Response to Local Survey and Potential Competition

Mingquan Wang, Elliot Martin, and Susan Shaheen, PhD

The rapid motorization of China raises questions about the potential for alternative mobility solutions, such carsharing (short-term auto use), in developing mega cities like Shanghai, with a population of over 17 million people. While motor vehicle demand is increasing rapidly, there are many aspects of urban transportation in Shanghai (and China more broadly) that separate it from the urban environments in which carsharing has traditionally thrived.

The Impact of Carsharing on Public Transit and Non-Motorized Travel: An Exploration of North American Carsharing Survey Data

Elliot Martin and Susan Shaheen, PhD

By July 2011, North American carsharing had grown to an industry of nearly 640,000 members since its inception on the continent more than 15 years ago. Carsharing engenders changes in member travel patterns both towards and away from public transit and non-motorized modes. This study, which builds on the work of two previous studies, evaluates this shift in travel based on a 6281 respondent survey completed in late-2008 by members of major North American carsharing organizations.

Greenhouse Gas Emission Impacts of Carsharing in North America

Elliot Martin and Susan Shaheen, PhD

This paper evaluates the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts that result from individuals participating in carsharing organizations within North America. The authors conducted an online survey with members of major carsharing organizations and evaluated the change in annual household emissions (e.g., impact) of respondents that joined carsharing. The results show that a majority of households joining carsharing are increasing their emissions by gaining access to automobiles. However, individually, these increases are small.

Greenhouse Gas Emission Impacts of Carsharing in North America Final Report

Susan Shaheen, PhD and Elliot Martin

This report presents the results of a study evaluating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission changes that result from individuals participating in a carsharing organization. The principle of carsharing is simple: individuals gain the benefits of private vehicle use without the costs and responsibilities of ownership. Carsharing is most common in major urban areas where transportation alternatives are easily accessible.

Carsharing and Personal Vehicle Services: Worldwide Market Developments and Emerging Trends

Susan Shaheen, PhD and Adam Cohen

Carsharing (or short-term auto use) provides a flexible alternative that meets diverse transportation needs across the globe, while reducing the negative impacts of private vehicle ownership. More than 65 years ago, carsharing began appearing in Europe. It has expanded to approximately 1,100 cities worldwide, in 26 nations on five continents. This article provides a global perspective of carsharing growth and future developments from 2006 through 2015, employing data from three surveys conducted in 2006, 2008, and 2010.

Personal Vehicle Sharing Services in North America

Susan Shaheen, PhD, Mark Mallery, and Karla J. Kingsley

Over the past three decades, carsharing has grown from a collection of local grassroots organizations into a worldwide industry. Traditional carsharing, though expanding, has a limited network of vehicles and locations. The next generation of shared-use vehicle services could overcome such expansion barriers as capital costs and land use by incorporating new concepts like personal vehicle sharing. Personal vehicle sharing provides short-term access to privately-owned vehicles.

Shared-Use Vehicle Services for Sustainable Transportation: Carsharing, Bikesharing, and Personal Vehicle Sharing Across the Globe

Susan Shaheen, PhD and Adam Cohen

This special issue of the International Journal of Sustainable Transportation highlights developments in shared-use vehicle research, in particular carsharing, public bikesharing, and personal vehicle sharing. Since the mid-1980s, shared-use vehicle services have gained momentum across the world. Developments include a range of operational models—private, non-profit, and governmental ventures; advanced technology; worldwide entry and growth; collaboration and competition; and increased activity by auto rental companies and automakers.