Greenhouse Gas Emission Impacts of Carsharing in North America

Elliot Martin and Susan Shaheen, PhD

This paper evaluates the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts that result from individuals participating in carsharing organizations within North America. The authors conducted an online survey with members of major carsharing organizations and evaluated the change in annual household emissions (e.g., impact) of respondents that joined carsharing. The results show that a majority of households joining carsharing are increasing their emissions by gaining access to automobiles. However, individually, these increases are small. In contrast, the remaining households are decreasing their...

Greenhouse Gas Emission Impacts of Carsharing in North America Final Report

Susan Shaheen, PhD and Elliot Martin

This report presents the results of a study evaluating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission changes that result from individuals participating in a carsharing organization. The principle of carsharing is simple: individuals gain the benefits of private vehicle use without the costs and responsibilities of ownership. Carsharing is most common in major urban areas where transportation alternatives are easily accessible. Individuals typically access vehicles by joining an organization that maintains a fleet of cars and light trucks deployed in lots located within neighborhoods, public...

Carsharing and Personal Vehicle Services: Worldwide Market Developments and Emerging Trends

Susan Shaheen, PhD and Adam Cohen

Carsharing (or short-term auto use) provides a flexible alternative that meets diverse transportation needs across the globe, while reducing the negative impacts of private vehicle ownership. More than 65 years ago, carsharing began appearing in Europe. It has expanded to approximately 1,100 cities worldwide, in 26 nations on five continents. This article provides a global perspective of carsharing growth and future developments from 2006 through 2015, employing data from three surveys conducted in 2006, 2008, and 2010. The authors explore the interview findings of 25 carsharing...

Personal Vehicle Sharing Services in North America

Susan Shaheen, PhD, Mark Mallery, and Karla J. Kingsley

Over the past three decades, carsharing has grown from a collection of local grassroots organizations into a worldwide industry. Traditional carsharing, though expanding, has a limited network of vehicles and locations. The next generation of shared-use vehicle services could overcome such expansion barriers as capital costs and land use by incorporating new concepts like personal vehicle sharing. Personal vehicle sharing provides short-term access to privately-owned vehicles. As of May 2012, there were 33 personal vehicle sharing operators worldwide, with 10 active or in pilot phase...

Shared-Use Vehicle Services for Sustainable Transportation: Carsharing, Bikesharing, and Personal Vehicle Sharing Across the Globe

Susan Shaheen, PhD and Adam Cohen

This special issue of the International Journal of Sustainable Transportation highlights developments in shared-use vehicle research, in particular carsharing, public bikesharing, and personal vehicle sharing. Since the mid-1980s, shared-use vehicle services have gained momentum across the world. Developments include a range of operational models—private, non-profit, and governmental ventures; advanced technology; worldwide entry and growth; collaboration and competition; and increased activity by auto rental companies and automakers.

Innovative Mobility Carsharing Outlook – Fall 2012

Susan A.Shaheen, Ph.D. and Adam Cohen

As of October 2012, carsharing was operating in 27 countries and five continents, with an estimated 1,788,000 members sharing over 43,550 vehicles. Carsharing was planned in seven additional countries worldwide. North America remains the largest carsharing region in terms of membership, with 50.8% of worldwide members and 36% of all fleets deployed. Europe, which has lower member-vehicle ratios, accounts for 38.7% of members and 47.0% of fleets deployed.

Truck Parking and Traffic on I-5 in California: Analysis of a Clipboard Survey and Annual Average Daily Traffic Data

Elliot Martin, PhD and Susan Shaheen, PhD

Truck parking is a major problem on I-5 in California as truck drivers regularly encounter parking that is at or near capacity, particularly when searching for overnight parking. This creates safety hazards for truck drivers as well as the traveling public. This study reports on the results of a clipboard survey of truck drivers (N = 85) on I-5 in California in Spring 2012. The survey focused on understanding the challenges faced by long haul truck drivers parking in the region and to evaluate the degree to which ITS applications in truck parking, such as real-time parking...

Zero- and Low-Emission Vehicles in U.S. Carsharing Fleets: Impacts of Exposure on Member Perceptions

Susan Shaheen, PhD, Elliot Martin, PhD, and Apaar Bansal

The California Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate, adopted in 1990, was aimed at increasing the sale and dissemination of low- or zero-emission vehicles throughout the California auto market. ZEVs include plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHVs) and all-electric vehicles (EVs). In an attempt to accelerate the exposure of ZEVs in the general population, in 2001, additional credits were allotted to automakers in return for placing ZEVs into transportation networks, such as carsharing fleets. This policy is set to end in 2018. This white paper presents the results of a study that evaluated the impacts...

Impacts of car2go on Vehicle Ownership, Modal Shift, Vehicle Miles Traveled, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An Analysis of Five North American Cities

Elliot Martin, PhD and Susan Shaheen, PhD

Carsharing is the shared use of a vehicle fleet by members for tripmaking on a per trip basis. There are four forms of carsharing in North America today: 1) roundtrip, 2) one-way, 3) peer-to-peer, and 4) fractional. In roundtrip carsharing, members begin and end a trip at the same vehicle location and typically pay for use by the hour, mile, or both. One-way carsharing enables members, who pay by the minute, to begin and end a trip at different locations—either throughout a free floating zone or stationbased model with designated parking locations. Peer-to-peer carsharing functions much...

Dynamic Ecodriving in Northern California: A Study of Survey and Vehicle Operations Data from an Ecodriving Feedback Device

Elliot Martin, Ph.D, Kanok Boriboonsomsin, Ph.D, Nelson Chan, Nigel Williams, Susan Shaheen, Ph.D, and Matthew Barth, Ph.D

Ecodriving describes the behavioral modifications that drivers can make to improve their fuel economy. Dynamic ecodriving comprises the use of real-time feedback information that informs the driver of vehicle performance. This study evaluates the performance of an aftermarket real-time feedback device that reported instantaneous fuel economy to drivers while driving. Study participants (N = 18) drove with the device for two months. During the first month, the device provided no feedback, but collected data on driving activity. During the second month, the device continued to collect...