Automated vehicle technology offers many opportunities to improve the quality of public transport. This chapter reviews key understanding and takeaways from an international workshop that took place in July 2016 at the Automated Vehicle Symposium in San Francisco, California, which focused on the ongoing development of shared automated mobility services and public transit. During the two-day workshop, speakers from the public and private sectors, academia, and nongovernmental organizations presented key findings from their work.
Automated vehicles, if shared, have the potential to blur the lines between public and private transportation services. This chapter reviews possible future shared automated vehicle (SAV) business models and their potential impacts on travel behavior. By examining the impacts of non-automated shared mobility services like carsharing and ridesourcing, we foster a better understanding of how current shared mobility services affect user behavior. This serves as a starting point to explore the potential impact of SAV services. Several key studies covering the topic are discussed.
This primer provides an introduction and background to shared mobility; discusses the government’s role; reviews success stories; examines challenges, lessons learned, and proposed solutions; and concludes with guiding principles for public agencies. The primer provides an overview of current practices in this emerging field, and it also looks toward the future in the evolution and development of shared mobility.
Shaheen, PhD, Elliot Martin, PhD, Adam Cohen, Apoorva Musunuri, and Abhinav Bhattacharyya
In recent years, technological and social forces have pushed smartphone applications (apps) from the fringe to the mainstream. Understanding the role of transportation apps in urban mobility is important for policy development and transportation planners. This study evaluates the role and impact of multimodal aggregators from a variety of perspectives, including a literature review; a review of the most innovative, disruptive, and highest-rated transportation apps; interviews with experts in the industry, and a user survey of former multimodal aggregator RideScout users.
Susan Shaheen, PhD, Adam Cohen, Balaji Yelchuru, and Sara Sarkhili
This operational concept report provides an overview of the Mobility on Demand (MOD) concept and its evolution, description of the MOD ecosystem in a supply and demand framework, and its stakeholders and enablers. Leveraging the MOD ecosystem framework, this report reviews the key enablers of the system including business models and partnerships, land use and different urbanization scenarios, social equity and environmental justice, policies and standards, and enabling technologies. This review is mostly focused on the more recent forms of MOD (e.g., shared mobility).
Susan Shaheen, PhD, Corwin Bell, Adam Cohen, Balaji Yelchuru
Shared mobility—the shared use of a motor vehicle, bicycle, or other low-speed transportation mode that allows users to obtain short-term access to transportation on an as-needed basis—has the potential to help address some transportation equity challenges. In an effort to categorize the myriad of transportation equity barriers facing transportation system users, this primer proposes a ‘STEPS to Transportation Equity’ framework including: Spatial, Temporal, Economic, Physiological, and Social barriers.
Shared-ride services—transportation modes that allow riders to share a ride to a common destination—include various forms of ridesharing (carpooling and vanpooling); ridesplitting and taxisplitting; and microtransit. With the proliferation of smartphones and mobile Internet, it has become more convenient to share rides. Shared-ride services are having a transformative impact on many global cities by increasing vehicle occupancy through smartphone apps.
Ensuring equal access for protected classes impacted by shared mobility services is critical. In California, this can include provisions mandating access for individuals with disabilities, as well as prohibitions in discrimination against other protected classes. Many of these laws not only prohibit discrimination against the end user but also shared mobility employees. In addition to prohibiting discrimination, it is imperative to ensure shared mobility is accessible to all.